HEMIPANTER  
de TOMASO PANTERA GT-5 IS A BEAUTY. 9,4 LITRE HEMI ENGINE MAKES IT A THRILL TO DRIVE.
.
WELCOME TO MY PANTERA AND GUITAR PAGE.
The engine of 2014. All aluminium, dual COP ignition, solid engine mount. Myself 2009. At the time the engine had the older valve cover, cast iron block and analog ignition.

Top, A picture from Mantorp Park race track. Shot by Anders Odeholm, a top Swedish photographer.

I really like unique buildings, nice targets for a sportscar tour. Top and left is the Wik castle and lower image is the stables at the Taxinge castle. All in the neighbourhood of Stockholm.

Fast sportscars
Chassis and components
Weight savings.
The Pantera
Aerodynamics
Interior.
The engine.
Brakes
Pictures 2004 season
Engine Spec
Wheels and tires.
History
Injection, ignition
Rollbars springs schocks
PederPanter
Exhaust
A-arm geometry
Books
Fabrication pictures
Performance
Corvette Racing car
Favorit car sites
Specifications

News Windtunnel testing.

A few words about my guitars and the music part of my life.

A new design of my guitars, the "Hemi Pantera guitar". Coloured as my Hemipanter car, Destributed by Tip Top musik, Stockholm.

My own bass model. The same shape and body size as the guitar combined with the Gibson length scale. The bridge is of solid brass. The picups is hidden and mounted from the back side. Each pikcup has its own channel and two amplifiers is to be used, preferably using an exponential horn for bass and some kind of midrange-tweeter speakers for the treble pikcup. The top is Rio Jakaranda.

The guitar is curly maple top. I use the same bridge of solid brass. The idea is to have good sustain.Fine tuning is made by filing the bridge for the type of strings to be used. Original cream PAF humbucker. These are very special sounding picups that hardley will be duplicated.

A spectra analysis of the magnets made by the Ericsson FOA laboratory tells that the old type alloy is not uniform due to old tecniques and therefore discontinued prior to more stable types that better meets the specification. However, the old type magnet gives the picup a unik sound that due to uneven alloy is also different between picups. And may even be different side to side of a single picup All this appart from the fact that Gibson also used different strength magnets. I have been keeping the very best souning PAF:s during the 60:s, and do now have those mounted on this guitar. One black and one cream. Picups that has to be listened to before speaking "copy" PAF sounds". It is specially the dynamic properties of the picup that is amazing.

Speaker cabinet.

Led Zepelin 1969 using my speaker cabinets.   Photo from an early Cream video, Eric Clapton playing on my guitar. Special design head, in an attempt to put my own personality on the guitar. The body is hollow semi-acoustic. The expert guitar man may notice that the bridge is not Fender stuff. "Zebra" maple body.

The Abba guitar.

There have been rumors about who made this guitar, as well as the exact design. Since ABBA museum and some coverband was interested in having the guitar in their show, I decided to produce two new specimens. However, I would thereby put an end to rumors about who made the guitar. Goran Malmberg 3 juli 2011.
ABBA with the star shaped guitar at the Eurovision song contest. Brighton. Pick guard.

Reconstruction of the guitar.

I did finally finished the work, after a year hiatus. I need to get in to "guitar mode" in order to to do this kind of job, since there is no room for failure with details.
Before going to the sportscar part of this site, let me play a few songs.
This is a You Tube release of the old Ghost Riders in the Sky. It show the special sound of this bass even equipped with tremolo arm. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72X0q2EMxbA

"Shadow" a song I composed on Juni 2013 and recorded a day later and filmed at the same night. It is about the shadows so it is dark.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6i6rFIFEhPs&feature=youtu.be

One of my newly composed piece of music and related video called "Rain". A gentle song played on my base as usual. A great thanks to the Po Alm for his Almeko which is a big piece of the puzzle for me to get up the tremendous sound in the base.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4xPUgPjRGk

hemipanter video. I passed the Drottningholm Palace and gilded the royal wedding ceremony. Salut with guns is not enough, what is needed is a mighty engine noise. (They dont use Viggen aircraft these days, which would otherwise fill the requirement).
http://youtu.be/XtTfx8Xn4b4

 

Sportscars

The Pantera.

Why a Pantera? I am not to fanatic about brands, but the Pantera do have a few things going for it. It is a nice looking car. Technically it has an all steel monocoque. It is said to be torsionally weak, but this is mostly due to rust and age. It provides a roomy engine bay accepting almost any engine. Maybe not a V-10 engine, as length is one of the engine bays few limitations. Suspension is the same as on most Italian sportscars, so handling is very much a question of setting the car up properly. Pantera is missing adjustabiliy of suspension. In order to adjust roll it is necessary to change to another rate bar. I do like simplicity. The car should have NO more parts than absolutely necessary. I this context, the Pantera is well suited as a street car. Surprisingly , perhaps , many items that makes race cars fast actually makes a streetcar slower.

The Engine.

Why a Hemi? It is a legendary engine. In fact, it is the world's most powerful and fastest engine there is, close to 1000 hp per 1000cc cylinder displacement. It holds the top fuel record and the ss/aa (stock) 1/4 mile record with a Hemi Baracuda at 8,64 sec in the . The Hemi is like having some racing history in the car.

Motor-horsepower philosophy. Some of you may wonder about this elephant motor in a sports car. Sports cars are supposed have small 15000-rpm motors. Well, I am of a somewhat different opinion . The only number of interest is horsepower . Horsepower is related to how much air and fuel the engine can burn, per time. Which in turn is related to how many cubic inches of swept volume the piston produce, per time. Presumed we are talking about engines with an efficiency of near 100%, cubic inches*rpm is the only way to more power. Since rpm for several reason is somewhat limited, especially on the street, mor cubic inches is the way to go if not supercharged. Here is how...

1) Larger piston area.

2) Higher piston speed. Which in turn is related to A, more rpm. B, longer stroke.

Racing cars has limitations for engine size. Therfore, they use rpm, to produce more cubic inches, per time. On the street we do not suffer racing regulations.. And as this is a pushrod engine, it is limited to a rather relaxed 7000 rpm. I therefore rather use stroke to create piston speed for more air flow. Some sports car gurus claim a long stroke big incher will suffer from dull throttle response. In my opinion this is not true since pistons acceleration at its mean piston speed (mps), has got nothing or little to do with stroke.
However, an over-square engine do not have the same head area to give room for biggest possible valve area in relation to cui, but the Hemi can take a lot stroke without running in to that sort of problems.

What about torque??? Torque is a good indication of efficiency as an air pump for a good mcp , mean combustion pressure . It show how well the combination of induction, head porting, combustion chamber, exhaust headers, camshaft and engine geometry, all work together. Here is (my own) rule of the thumb. 0,1Nm per cc engine size represent close to 100% volumetric efficiency. In my case (572 cui = 9400 cm2), x 0,1 Nm = 940 Nm. So, to be accepted as an OK engine build up, my engine has to be able to deliver 940 Nm of torque.

This Ferrari F-50 GT deliver 520 Nm from 4700 cc. 520/4700 = 0,11. Which equals 0,10% boast without a charger.

Torque, is commonly misconstrued as power at low rpm. It is not. To move a car faster (time), at low (as well as high) rpm, the engine must produce more horsepower. If a 3000-pound car should do the quarter in 10 seconds , we have to have 600 horsepower at the rear wheels. It is mathematically impossible to tell how many foot-pounds of torque that is needed to do the work. Of course, we can say, xxx fp of torque at yyy rpm , but then we are talking horsepower again. ( hp = torque x rpm ) , hence, high rpm torque produces the best HP. In other words, I like my motor to produce torque at high end of the rpm range. In fact, the best torque producers are very high rpm motors. Those take real advantage of tuned intake and exhaust system, ported heads etc. So, when it comes to specify a quantity of work, the correct way of number is horsepower.

A drawback with a big incher is that the engine get physically big and heavy. By the use of aluminium heads etc, my car weights in at 1050 kg, this is lighter than the original Pantera with a 351 Cleveland stopping the scale at 1450 kg.

Engine. The old HEMI is conducted by a modern engine management system by NIRA The motor is based on the new aluminium 4,5" bore INDY HEMI block. A 4,5" stroke crank necessitates grinding out the block and remove the original provision for oil pickup. But I use the KB pump, oil pickup hoses runs outside the engine.

Heads. The heads is what separates a Hemi from other engines. It has been a lot discussion about Hemi vs the wedge design combustion chamber. As with everything, there are no optimum chamber design. It all depends on what we want the engine to do. Hemis have a 170 cc combustion chamber, great for top fuelers but not for a gasoline 426 engine, as we end up with 6,5:1 cr ratio with a flat top piston. Or, one must use a big dome that creates an orange-shell-shape combustion chamber with deep valve notches, shrouding the valves . But with the additional 100, or better still 200 inches, we can make the Hemi head shine. With a small circular quench-dome we have a street able 13,5:1 cr ratio, and a nice burning chamber. With a 15:1^ cr, pro stock racing engine limited to 500 cui, we are back in to troubble using a true hemi chamber.

The installation, of the Hemi in the Pantera required a few things to be fabricated. An adapter plate to fit the gearbox bell housing to the engine. Header fabrication, and a 3-inch exhaust system. Rework of a Ford aluminium flywheel to suite the Hemi crankshaft. Machine the Hemiblock to allow for a right hand side starter motor. Rear adapter plate and front stands to the car frame. Machine the heads for new water outlets. Plugging the original block water outlet and machine the block for a short style Chevy water pump. Fabrication of a new oil pan. These are the main items , then it is just some belt pulleys, alternator brackets etc, like always in a build up.

By 2013 I build a new engine, the old iron block is switched for an of aluminium. This saves weight while at the same time offering the oportunity of having more cui for almost no extra money. 4,5 stroke and 4,5 diameter makes for 572 cui. Block, crank, rods, piston and gaskets was delivered by S&S Mopar shop owned by Steve Bowman.

Everything is cleaned and put in to boxes waiting for the new aluminium block to enter the scene.

After the engine was taken out of the car the rear lower crossmember was cut out. In favour for a nicer and lighter and stronger piece of steel.
The new aluminium engine block from Indy Heads Now for the new engine mou-nts, this requires a properly made cardboard model. It is important that the gearbox and engine are exactly centrically against each other. Engine must also be positioned correctly both laterally and horizontally. A diagonal bracing was installed under the gearbox.
After that, I've cut out the shape in an aluminum sheet which is 6mm thick. Here it is placed in the car for some final adjustments. The engine plate also braces the rear of the car and put engine-gearbox weightover the coilovers. The shape of the pistons is important so I made a mold from plaster and send it to the piston manufacturer. The piston recievd was not exactly the same probably due to machining equipment, but they are good enough. A flat quench area and a curvature dome following the combustion chamber roof for a better burning chamber.

Orange shell Hemi combustion chambers should be avoided. This is the chamber to use for dual plug and ofer extreamly short flame travel.

Bottom, the left pistonwas the first I got from Wiseco, not att all as the suggested design to the right. I had to reorder.

Eagle rods 7,1 inches long.

Bottom, the heads has steel rockers ans alu stands.

Beehive springs with a small diameter retainer is perffect to fit inside the valcovers without hitting the cover.

Bottom, the dual plug holes.

I need a fresh surface on the flywheel-clutch, this is a great way to do this myself. This way of grinding the flywheel works great. Indy block special ordered without water holes now made to fit a Chevy waterpump. This is to make a shorter engine. The engine ready for installing in the car.
Engine lifted in, together with the transaxle, to the car, a great day!

Engine front mounts is much better possitioned this way than original Pantera.

Gas pump and oiling sytem. I did shortened the housing a tiny bit in order to use the Ford BB high volune gear set which is the same diameter and shape as the KB gear. No cost! Great pump.

The gear shifter handle is mounted in an angle to make the rod to fit the engine location better and promote more ease gear shifting. Gear shifter rod is supported by the engine mounting plate. Beside the drivers seat. To the left is the NIRA brain and fuse panel. Observe the distributor which now is only used for crank possition signal and oilpump drive.
     

Oiling.

Oil pan. Is a story for itself in a wet design and this very low installation. This is my 4;Th pan. And now it seems to function properly. Of course, I could have used a dry system, as in my earlier Panteras, but the KB pump made a clean installation without to much hoses belts etc. And a stimulating challenges to make a wet pan to carry over 1g in any direction. A good design oil pan is important since it allows the use of smaller quantities of oil, without the risk of oil starvation. I want the engine to warm up quickly, which is not possible if too much oil is used. This pan is designed to hold 6 quart of oil, which is enough to prevent from any possibility to suck air. However, if I happen to be in a situation of a long distance driving, where there is a risk of the engine consuming oil, but it can handle an extra 2-quarter. The pan is safe in "normal" driving using 4 quart.

The new oil pan using grommets for the bolts for easier mounting and permit a wider design with better oil draft to the side. Very long bolts was welded together. The pic-up
  I made some trapdoors to control the oil. The oil pan sealing surface to the engine would most likely get uneven when welding. One way to get it straight is to tin putty and sand it .
The windage tray with separating walls and louvers   .

I am very pleased with this oiling system. A wet system allways has its limitations but with this in mind I could not expect it to be better. In any case, it is very much compact design.

Bottom picture is the old oilpan.

Engine appear to run slightly cooler which indicates less oil splashing around the crank.

Bottom picture is the old oilpan.

This drawing show my former drysump system design. Pump is very low mounted on a oilpan bracket.A number of scrapers over the full lenght of the crankchaft.
 

Engine spec.

Engine is configured for alcohol use, E 85. Block is Indy aluminium Hemi . Crank 4,5 stroke billet . Rods 7,1 inch steel, ratio1,58:1. Piston 4,5 bore and 13,0:1 Cr. Heads aluminium, ported by KB. Aluminium rocker chaft mounts. Valve spring 200 pound seat pressure. Retainers titanium. Camshaft 264 degree@ ,050 roller. Intake, Rebuilt Weiand tunnel-ram manifold. Oil pump KB. Damper ATI . Oil pan, 11 quart wet sump. Exhaust headers 4 to1. Crank trigger inductive and 30 tooth lost 2, wheel.

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

The injection, ignition.

As I have no dyno , I did all the injection programming, driving on the road. I used a lambda sond for analysis. After some 30 years of all types of carburettor tuning, it is quite interesting to see a hard copy of all injection numbers. Especially the Webers have given me a rather solid background from which to view this, and I have developed a feel for how the engine is running. Being musically inclined & a guitar builder is also a great help as I know the RPM by the note of the enginet thus making lap top tuning while driving more easy. Equally important with ECU management is ignition timing, which could be set to any chosen degree over the engines entire rpm band. It even allows the engine to run cooler as the timing could be optimised to give crank energy instead of heat. Seen over the whole season of 3000 miles, the engine has appeared to consume some 15% less fuel compared to the carb seasons. The lowest consumption at steady 60 mph, was 16 mpg. The season average is 14 mpg, compared to 12 on carbs. No city driving is represented in those numbers. The engine runs better in traffic, start ups and idles more reliably in coold weather. As for power output, the engine shows better performance over the entire prm spectrum .

NIRA, is the ecu I use today.

Intake manifold. I used a Weiand tunnel ram, as a base to fabricate an intake manifold. Tunnel rams are well known , not to work very well as a street manifold. But this is more of a carb problem. The big plenum of a tunnel-ram is hard to handle for a carb. In a port fuel injection set up, it turns out pretty great. Here are som reasons...

1, 426 tunnel-ram channel areas is design for high revs. But with 572 cui 3,9 square inch area will put the torque peak down to just over 5000 rpm.

2, The channel is longer than the dual plane which gives better low end.

3, Very straight and thereby easy ported channels.

4, There are no "accelerator pump filling the plenum" problem, since the injectors are close to the heads. For the same reason we do not suffer from weak venturi booster signal, commonly associated with tunnel ram manifolds (using carbs)

Injectors. 8 high impedance, enough for 1000 hp.

Fuel rails. I fabricated fuel rails from 1x1,5 inch aluminium bar. Fuel line is 3/4" diameter. Both rails is running in parallel to the pressure regulator and return line, which is good for delivering the same fuel pressure to all injectors.

Trottle body. Is of my ovn fabrication, making the tunnelram bottom to an independent runner manifold.

Ignitions. Coil on plug configuration, using 16 VW coils.

Sparkplug readings

Sparkplug and fuel tuning

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Exhaust.

Headers are 31 x 2,11 inches, giving the engine a peak at 6000 rpm. I have my own (guitar tuning) trick of tuning the exhaust primary pipes. By listening to the note of the pipe, it is possible to tune all primary (and secondary pipes respectively) to the same frequency even though this might result , due to bends and such , in some discrepancy in actual physical length. Think of it as an organ pipe. Sing a note in the pipe listening for the resonance to tune in. The frequency is a function of air volume and pipe length. Staggered pipes they may be , but we´ve got the resonance length spot on!. And frequencies is what the engine senses. A fraction of an inch is easily detected in the variance of note. End pipes are 3 inches x 25. To quiet the car I use a large silencer, pictured later in this site.

Another interesting side effect of "guitartuning" the exhaust is that it provides great music! Especially with the very short system of the Pantera which responds to almost any change in pipe design. And as no surprise, good note and performance are more often than not very , closely related.

180 degree headers, 90-degree headers, tri-Y headers. Well, I use regular headers. In my earlier car I have been using all type of headers. The 180 and even more so the 90 headers give a V-8 the same sound as a 180-degree crankshaft or V-12. They also look impressive. They do have some tuning advantage and a few more horsepower. But, this design almost allways comes out with too long primarys. Making them suitable for lower rpm engines. On the other hand, regular headers will be to short in the aviable Pantera header-space. With the wide Hemi motor 180;s are an almost impossible fit in the Pantera. The Hemi has a special sound to begin with, that are greatley backed up by regular design headers. After a lot pipe tuning I am proud to say that the car has received a lot attention for having a great heavy sound.

 
My 302 Boss Trans Am engines built by Falconer Dunn. Fords highest reving engine ever. 9000 rpm in the Ford catalog. Here equipped with 180 degree headers. The end pipes is close together, important for a great sound. This particular engine produced 427 hp. Four IDA Webers and dry sump oiling. 90 degree headers on a 500 Ford big block. I used this motor in the late1980;s. This system was very quite, and nice sounding. The silencer had a 4 inch core diameter My first big block Ford motor for the Pantera, 1985. This is a 385 series 460 stroked to 500 cui. Using Ford motorsport aluminium headds and intake for dominator carb. Dry sump system and electrical water pump. Also, 90 degree header system.  
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Fabrication pictures.

IR intake manifold.
Trottle blades.  
This is an aluminium tool for turning the butterfly to oval shape. Butterfly is sandwiched between the two aluminium clamping tool parts with two screws, using the two holes to be mounted to the trottle shaft. This way the butterfly will stop in closed possition and can not turn any futher.They are made from chrome molley steel in order not to bend. Axle are offset for the butterfly not to open itself by vacuum.The diameter is 2,41".

Air filter is a must. It must not block the rear mirror sight and be very light and filter the air. It must also supply the engine with cool air.The Lexan holds together by a thin aluminium frame makes for a weight of just over a pound.

Weiand tunnelram bottom but without the plenum and I use two trottle body in its place.Stacks that is shaped to make a good air entry in to the runners and also making the runner a little longer, now 13,38".
   

Injector test bench.

 
.

The intake runner of my engine, showing the location of the injector.

Bosch Ev 14 injector i delar. 2000cc.  
   
Bosch 040 940 cc injector has good atomization. To the left at 2ms duty and above at constant duty. Compared to RC injector 880 cc, sort of shower style beam, not to great. If we want soething really nice! This is the Volvo Bosch 214cc injector. Here at 66 psi fuel pressure. RC inj266 cc injector of similar small size, Not to bad but still not as good as the much larger 040.
Lighter suspension bolts. New composite firewall door. Very light 4,4p flat with insulation and bolts. Dec 2008! A new clutch again. The two disc racing clutch was a bit hard to use on the street. A very simple balance machine! The brown part in front of the flywheel is hanging down in a bearing and can move sideways then. It works great for both static and dynamic balancing.
Header fabrications. I used a wooden dummy frame of the car when I built the exhaust system. 1995. Making a new carbon fiber hood. E85 fuel is not building any soot inside the combustion chamber. Piston remain as new. .This is a primer oiling container, very much the same as an accusump, but smaller.
Muffler fabrication.It is important to have a both quite and efficent exhaust sytem. One thing that is hard to bypass is that such system demand i large volume silencer. Luckily the Pantera have space for such thing.

The main silencer is a perforated tube. Inside baffle is showing inside.

The outside of the silencer is cowerd with fibre glass.

The outside is from sheet aluminium, rolled to shape using a round tubing and using my own feet and weight, on two of my boat seats. And finally the aluminium cower is in place.Tightened in place by two large hose clammers. The muffler section of the end pipes. A number od holes are drilled. 2 end pipes each side as the original look.The end pipes are slided over the final muffler tubing.
Bumper fabrication. Balsa wood bumpers! Since lighting is needed, I produced a "LED lamp" panel that provides 50 lumens.All external surfaces are covered with gauze from care, glued with wood glue. A thin layer of light trowel smooths the fabric pattern, but only on the outside. It weighs 215 grams, complete with bolts and everything.
Air scoop for the Pantera! The Pantera suffer from under the hood hot air. So, an air scoop is to be fitted. Not really a dream of design, but quite effective.
Handbrake. The Pantera hand brake is not the very best. This does not really make it brake better but it sure include less komponets and is ligther. By making it lower the lever arm down to under the car is getting shorter thereby making the extra factory arm unnessesary. On the underside of the car there is from the factory a lever arm that makes life hard if trying to remove the oilpan.
Gear box linkage.    
Hemi camwalk fix.
  I used a standard roller timing drive from Comp Cam:s, and machined all surfaces. An aluminium bearing centre was fabricated. Here in its possition with the cam bolts in place. There is an identical bearing on the other side of the gear drive. On the inside of the cam cower there is a bearing thrust plate mounted. I am using zero end play.The layer consists of 3 parts, two outer steel shims and roller tray in the middle.
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Favorite car sites.

Rejsa.nu Svensk race site för alla som gillar kurvor. Deltar en del själv i diskussioner .

Speedlab.se Corvette Racing Team, I am designing the race car for the team.

Roadsters.com Great car site where you find racing parts, car clubs etc.

Prestage Car math with et horsepower time g-force calculations. Articles, databas etc.

Pantera International. Pantera car club site.

de Tomaso.nu Svensk de Tomaso site

Guitar sites. (My proffession is guitarbuilder).

Rolf Wikstrom Show 4 of his Malmberg guitars. (klick on gitarrer).

pm-shopen.se Om man nu skall ha en stereo eller gps. då är detta butiken.

Me fabricating a clutch, working at the turner. Of course, I would not dare to protect the wall from turning oil with a Pantera poster.
Recomended composit workshop, great guys. http://www.swecomposite.com/

Chassises and components.

Theories. The Pantera is a neither a ground-nor wing-effect car. Well, the GT-5 does sport a big cosmetic rear wing. Over the rear hood.... probably creating "wing to hood" down force instead of "wing to ground" down force. There is a common misconception that a good car should have a 50-50 % weight distribution. The thinking behind this is seems to be that the car should have equal loads on all wheels. However, static weight distribution is valid only in the parking lot............ where no tire grip is necessary.

What is important is how the dynamic weight distribution affects the car. This depends on the whole car as a concept. Extra friction is created by the use of a large and soft rubber area. And it is desirable to under all driving conditions keeping the weight distribution as even as possible over this rubber area, (except during acceleration). Under braking and while cornering all four wheels are used. This calls for a low centre of gravity, in order to to minimize weight transfer. Under acceleration only two wheels are used to move the car. Now the entire weight needs to be at the rear wheels. What is good in one situation is easily disastrous in another. So, I work with what I percieve to be a reasonable static centre of gravity . Which in the case of the Pantera (when over 500 hp) is 60-65% rear bias, backed up by the same proportion tire area. This gives me 55% front load under 1g of braking and thereby a good help from the rear tires. At 1g of acceleration I got 70% rear tire load, to secure a good grip. Then using sway bars, springs, shocks and suspension geometry to handle the weight transfer in the best possible way under different driving condition.

The fastest way is a straight line.Any movement up-down-left - right should be avoided.If the road turns, the driver should straighten out the travel line. When the road has bumps , as small part of the car weight as possible, should move up and down. Here the suspension will straighten out the travel line. When the car corners at its limit, there is scanty litle room for hefty driver actions or hard suspension settings. Emerson Fittipaldi once had a driver's school in England. The school car had a horizontal parabolic cup with a tennis ball in it, mounted on the front hood. The idea of the exercise was that the car should be driven around the track gently enough to maintain the ball in the cup. This teaches one that anything to harsh and heavy will make you loose the ball, or what it symbolizes, the grip at higher speeds.

The monocoque chassis, of the Pantera is made of 0,036" steel , and weighs in at just about 500 pounds, which is not very heavy by any stadards. I like this type of construction where every part of the car adds to the structural strength. Nowadays most racing cars use tub-monocoques out of carbon fibre, where even the engine is involved as a structural member . Great stuff and a similar technique. The steel body of the Pantera does not tolerate rust as this completeley obliterates torsionall stability. In a 30 year old car rust is a problem. No two ways about it! I have torsion tested a number of Pantera chassis. Rusted as well as rebuilt. A rebuilt (or new) chassis is stiff enough for hard street use. Rusted are NEVER!. I tested a nice looking chassis that could only hold 700 foot pound/degree!!! On this car almost all of the profiled middle rocker pantel section was rusted out.

Torsional stability. 700 fp rust figures, has given Pantera a bad stiffness reputaion. Especially since the car not seldom looks quite sound from the outside. Thus making it easy to put it down to bad engineering . People then start to bolt on all kinds of stiffening devices in place of fixing the rust. But even a sound Pantera could use a few more foot pounds of stiffness. When twisting the chassis it is easily seen where flex occurs. Stiffening of those areas by triangulation, is not always easily accomplished. One would prefer be able to get in and out the car, have a motor in the engine bay, etc. This very often result in tubes positioned where there is space left. Bent tubes, and tube joints where the tube intersection does not line up. Tube reinforcements also create new stress concentrations and weak points elsewhere.

Chassis stiffening. My idea has been to reinforce the chassis in a monocoqueish manner . As said, the whole chassis support torsional stability. Certain areas support more load than others. These areas are "profiled" by the same 0,036" sheet metal. Often with a diagonal middle wall, in a three wall "tube" like profile. To make a supporting profile made from 0,036" steel strong, one must see to that the metal recieve straight loads. In other words, there should be no waves in the sheet metal when welded in place. Something which takes an experienced chassis tecnichan to do . The Gt-5 skirt. (rocker panel) was originally made in fibreglass, thus only creating a good looks. I made them in steel, integrated in the chassis with a large cross sectional area. These type of actions stiffen the chassis with neglible addition in weight , which is the very idea with a monocoque. I do have a roll cage, but this is strictly for driver protection. However, I have been driving this car for 16 years with racing rubber. And 8 years with the Hemi. And , to date , without any type of flex related problems.

Floor reinforcement and steel rocker panels. All floor profiles is made on the inside of the car to make a flat under-outside.

Stiffening test.

Chassis frame structure.

This is a wooden chassis model of the Pantera "frame" structure. I made this to sort out what happens to the chassis under stress. The model is then dressed up with an outer shell, simulating the outer body panels. The model is twisted, and stressed in all kinds of ways. As a structure only and with outer panels, roof and floor in place. Different types of bracing are applied to see where it does some good. There are two areas of concern, 1. The rear section, 2. The coupe. Needless to say, the structure alone is no stronger than a playing card

I have been driving th Pantera with different torsional stifness numbers and with stock setup coilovers there is hard to separate 5000 to 15000 fp/dgr from each other.

But with racing tires and 3 Hz springs and matching dampers, tuning becomes more exact. What really loads the the chassis is the dampers, so schock settings is what is the moost noticeable.

 

Chassis bracing

Two electrical plastic tubes is used for measuring tool. Inside the two sliding pipes is a spring that keeps the expanding tool in place.All measurments is performed at a torsional load of 3000 foot pound.It is importanr to understand that in order to stiffen the car we MUST recognice areas of movement. If there is no movements, there is no gain by placing a bar in..Also, is is the torsional twisting motion that is to be stopped. Otherdirection of flex dosent really hurt cornering performance. But it might save the car from uggly paint crackings. What is said here does not concern safety and impact situations. A cage is the way to go then.

Diagonal engine bay lower part.+0,04 ", 1mm. Diagonal engine bay. -0,125", 3,2mm. -0,14", 3,7mm. +0,011", 0,3mm +0,0197", 0,5mm. To frame.
Engine bay horisontal. 0,00 " Rocker panel to roof-window pillar. -0,01" 0,25mm Coupe diagonal. 0,018", 0,46mm. Right door+0,02" 0,5mm Left door -0,02", 0,5mm

Hemipanter has a torsional stiffness of 15500 fp/degree.

As for references. Lamborghini Countach 1900 fp/degree. Ferrari 360 spider 6250 fp/degree. Viper gts has a "tube space frame" and 9000 fp/degree. Viper gts-R (Le Mans 24 hr) is reinforced to 13600 fp/degree. Lamborghini Murcielago also uses a high strength tube frame supported with honeycomb carbon fibre to 15000 fp/degree. It clearly shows that the Ferrari has no roof. Here we have cars with cromolly tube frames, carbon fibre, etc. Exotic material, loudly advertised as great stuff that makes those sport scars outstanding. Let me mention that the new SAAB 9-3 Sport Sedan, steel monocoque has a torsional stability of 16000 fp/degree. Showing that good engineering is more important than the use of fancy materials. Embarrassing for the SUPER cars? The Panoz racing car tub carbonfibre monocoque has a stiffness of 45000 fp /degree, but due to the front motor installation the axle to axle ratio is 30000 fp/d, at a weight of 110 pound. A street car that uses a tub monocoque is Koenigsegg . Also made of carbon fibre. This tub is said to have strength of 20500 fp/degree. As this, like the Panoz, is a tub number, the axle to axle ratio should be less. With the same reduction as the Panoz, we should land at 13600 fp/degree. This show that a monocoque is the way to go, even if made in sheet metal. The reason for using steel tube frames is the ease of production in a small numbers. A steel monocoque takes a tremendous investment in tools and engineering.

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Aerodynamic.

Wing.

A car wing works in the same manner as an aircraft wing, but upside down. The lifting "vacuum side" of the wing is now the underside. The wing works the best when close to the road and in an undisturbed air stream. Like the front wing of a formula 1 car, that create a high vacuum against the road. The Pantera rear wing is mounted over the rear hood. Creating vacuum between wing and the rear hood is of no use. It is like lifting oneself in the hair.

The look of a wing is spectacular. Widley discussed as beeing a design only item. Aerodynamic is a question beyond personal opinion. A wing could be used to create downforce. No matter what people think of its design. If it makes the car brake and turn better, I will use it. And if the function is OK, I will put some effort to make it look good.

On a ground effect car one might use a wing close to the rear body of the car, to make it work in conjunction with the underside of the car. The Pantera has no rear under side. Instead of creating down force, the car "vacum cleans" the road. Making it nesseary to clean up the engine compartment after every ride.

For a rear wing the only free air stream is quite high . It should also be mounted way back. Wing-(s) should also be positioned so that the centre of down force is located aft of the centre of weight gravity. This self stablices the car at high speed in the same manner as an arrow with feathers in the rear.

The wing could and must be made light because it is the highest point of the car. And has a great lever, like a trailer at the back of the car. And it is possible to make it light beacuse the loads carried by the wing is newer very high. At the most 0,8 pound/square inch. Most likely around 0,5. Down force changes by the square of the speed. If you can push the car by the wing it is probably strong enough.

Does the car need wings?Or better put, aerodynamic devices. Yes, if we like the car to be fast in corners, there is no alternative. Or else, we are stuck in stone-age corner speeds. Without down force devices we could newer corner much more than 1-G (street tires). Correctly engineered air devices also improve straight-line stability. Even at regular road speed of 60 mph we should theoretically be able to raise cornering G-s by 10-15 %. Downforce racecars. Mulsannescorner databas, great racecar info.

The original location of the rear wing. If one want it for looks only, this is OK. It stays within the size of the car itself. Check the wing location of a Trans am car! New test location of the rear wing. In fact, now it begins to make some good. The angle of attack is a shot in the dark, and gives 150 pounds of downforce at 94 mph. Adding 8,5% tracktion at the rear wheels. From here I will go on testing. Lola, good ecample of aerodynamics. Rear wing aft of the car!
My own design front hood. All air passing through radiator is coming out here. I made this for my first Pantera. Altrouhgt this on is used on Bjorn Carapis 219 mph car.He did not experience any speed front end lift. This is the cooling air outlet director. A single powerful fan from Audi fabricated by Siemens, is used.

The new hood was 4,7 kg or 10,34 pounds. The original was 17 kg or 37,40 pounds. Then we got a few things more spared on the car weighting 1,7kg or 3,96 pounds. For a sum of 31,02 pounds.

Fabricating a new front hood in fibreglass.Sandwished with bonocell layer.
The undrside is almost flat. There is an area where the jacking stand is placed that is still open. (I has to hawe wheels). And far back under the engine. The first wersion splitter pulled 50mm of water in the middle of the car, at 75 mph.Underside flat surface is 36000 cm2. We will see what this splitter will do. Rear diffusser of Ferrari F1
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Brakes.

More horsepower in the car it is often said that one must follow up with more brakes. I agree, but with a few corrections. Street speed depend more on the driver (if he like to keep the licence or not), than on engine output. If a 3000-pound car is to be stopped from 100 mph, we need brakes for that purpose. Not for how fast the car can reach 100 mph. On the racetrack more HP always result in a rise of the average speed, as the car always is used to its limit. Race car drivers knows exactly where to go off the throttle and start braking. This is not the case on the street. Road, sports car drivers must use a safety margin. This margin makes for more cooling time. So, I will not use bigger discs than just what is needed to prevent from overheating. Unnecessary disc weight reduces cornering power on rough surface road.

I will use the very best low temperature working pads. And no bigger or heavier calliper-pads than needed for even pad wear. The master cylinder system should be balanced for the callipers used. Of course, one can make a few laps at the track. And some very fast laps to, before it is time to stop and cool the discs down.

. With this in mind I designed the brake components to make a light combination. Therefore, although weaker than iron, aluminium callipers is used. Aluminium has a flex module of 10 and steel 30 million. I use one piece and closed back type calipers. I fabricated this one-piece aluminium hub (image) to mount wheels, discs and front wheel bearings. Discs are Lockheed, 20 mm ventilated. Until now I had no experience of overheating (on public roads). It may also be possible to use solid discs (only for the streets) as they offer slightley better stopping performance because of better clamping support, and are less prone to cracking. Great feature for one big high speed stop to zero. An often overlooked factor is to use the right type pads. The right pads makes the original Pantera Girling calipers more than enough for any street Pantera. The only problem is that they are heavy. Two important brake factors is, ALLWAYS a yearly change of brake fluid and the right pads.

ISR brakes.

   
     

This 4x1,3/4" piston calliper, weights in at 4,84 pound! The calliper uses 4 pads for even disc pressure.These callipers was used by the NASCAR teams until they where out ruled. Only 2 pads are allowed. We will see if they are up to my demands.......

Calliper piston.

Master cylinders for the clutch to the left, and the two balance bar working front and rear brake cylinders. Suits fine on Pantera original aluminium mounting plate.

Powerfull braking, measured in G-force, is a complicated story, greatly depending on how the tires is loaded under during retard. The reason racing cars use huge brakes are to withstand repeated braking. In a way that newer occur on the streets. Big size calipers and fat discs does not produce higher braking G;s. No matter how big, red-painted and racy look the brake system is, it is impossible to create more stopping force than the available tire friction against the road. Pad area does NOT affect braking torque. Big discs and calipers does NOT create tire friction. Heavy braking force is a question of downforce, car balance, tires and a matching brake balance. So, very much attention has been paid to this matter, and, by making use of all four wheels and not only the front wheels, to stop the car. As known, the biggest rubber area is on the rear wheels of the car, and accordingly, in my case, they should carry 1560 and the front tires 1040 pounds during 1 G of braking for optimum braking power. But in reality the car produce a weight distribution that gives 1144 rear and 1456 pounds at the front axle, or 56% of the weight at the front wheels at 1-G. Briefly, this will lower the tire-Cf and thereby reducing braking capacity by 5-10%.

A Porsche GT-1 will brake around 1,05 G over 100-0 km/hr. However, from 200-100 km/hr I am heavely beaten by the GT-1 as this car has better aerodynamics.

Physics of braking

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Wheels and tires.

Wheels are original GT-5 Campagnolo 13x15 and 10x15. Today 15-inch tires are hard to find. Hoosier and Avon still makes suitable rubber. There is a trend to the use of larger diameter wheels and lower profiles tires. This is just a trend, more than a good tire. After speaking with some of the leading racing tire manufacturer, I can assume that a tire profile of 40-45%, is about the best. Compared to spring wheel rate, tires usually has a rate of 1000 pound/inch. Tires also have a very good self dampening caracteristic. The tire spring work is also performed with almost non existent unsprung weight. And do not suffer from bumpsteer, camber change or the like. As long as my suspension and brakes does not call for more space, I prefer to use my 15 inch wheels. To take advantage of the tire side wall flex. The Campagnolo and racing tires also makes a very light combination, and wheel weight is of vital importance for a sports car. One rear wheel is 39 pound. The wheels is a unsprung weight that must be controlled by the shocks. A rotating mass, that must be accelerated in both rpm and distance. 250 pounds of wheels on the car is no thing but a serious sportscar destruction. One may perform quite good ski pad numbers with low profile-heavy tires. Do not let that misled you. Ski pad course usually are flat. Just wait until you hit a series of unexpected bumps in the middle of a fast road bend, and you are off the road. The Avon racing tires is of bias ply construction. This has both bad an good sides. They are more tolerable to camber settings, but has greater slip angles. This means that if the camber is not perfectley adjusted for a specific road, one will be faster than on radials. But it may confuse ackermann and toe settings.

Tire pattern.

Cutting tire pattern. I just use the same as what could be ordered from Avon. There must be a pattern, and it will hopefully do some good if I happened to be stuck in rain.

The Pantera cannot use a front tire larger than 600mm (23,5"). Which makes 15-16 inches wheels the most suitable. Of course, one can use 20 profile tires or raise the car to create the necessary spring travel. But these types of rubber and settings should only be used for show, not for those who like fast cars. Most of the big wheels is billet stuff, which in most cases makes the wheel by fare to heavy for anythig but look.

Wheel alignments. All measurements is on the wheel (15 inch distace). Rear wheels has 2 mm toe in. 1 mm each wheel to the middle line of the car, and 5 mm negative camber. Front wheels has 6 mm negative chamber and toe according to driving situations.

Caster. Pantera is limited in caster angle. This is taken care of by the new front suspension that uses 1 dgr Sai angle, then caster is only used for driver feel response and straight line stability.

Bumpsteer. Pantera is well known for bad bump steer. The new front suspension has zero bumpsteer over the used spring travel.

Ackermann. Is an interesting object. Especially with the larger slip angle of the bais ply tires. That may vary the "effective" toe setting by 10 degree during cornering. 100 % Ackermann is used on regular road cars, while "racing" Ackermann depend on tire slipangle. High speed cornering could use negative ackermann, while tighter corner should use positive Ackermann.


Friction area. A lot myths is circulating around tire dynamics. But her we are looking at real physical life testings.

As we know, the coefficient of friction is altering with area load. The less the load the better the coefficient, therfore larger tires gives better grip. However, if we try to calculate the balance of the car by using input numbers of the tire size, we are getting a spot of troubble. One misconception is that the tire contact with the road would be met by air pressure in the tire. Simply put, it means that if the air pressure is 2kgcm2 and the burden that rests on the wheel is 400kg so is the contact area 200cm2. As we will see here so this is not the case.

The two left tires are Avon racing slicks, and the two to the right is street Pirelli P-Zero. There is a huge different in footprint size, despite the fact that they are the same size tires.

This is the Pirelli footprint. At 880p and 29 psi it gives an area of 147cm2. Raising the inflation to 42psi did hardly show any difference in area size. This sow two things...

1, the tread pattern is geatly reducing the area.

2, the construction of a street tire is much stiffer than that of a racing tire.

Both left tires has the same diameter and a tire pressure of 25 psi. As can be seen, the wider tire show a shorter but wider print. The 10 inch tire has a print area of 308 cm2 and the wider tire 340 cm2. At a load of 880 pound
The image to the left show tire contact area in kg per square cm. At a tire inflation pressure of 2kg/cm2, or 29psi and 500 kg (227p) of load, we got 1,9 kg per cm2 of area. If we lower the inflation to 1 kg/cm2, (14,5pis), the load per cm2 will be reduced to 1,42 kg/cm2. If we divided 500kg by 1,90kg/cm2 we get 263cm^2 printarea. When lower the pressure from 2 to1kg cm2, we got 500/1,42=352cm^2 print area. So, half the iflation pressure gives 34% larger contact patch, not twice that much. A note, the tire does not carry the same load over the contact area, and the contact area is not in direct proportion to inflation pressure. A big amount of the advantage of wider tires is that they should be used with lower pressure on the same car.
We can imagine the tire having a very rough tread pattern, like this piece of wood, equally spaced around the tire. We should then have a contact area of 72cm2, giving 5,5kg/cm2. We can also note that the tire does not deform very much from this artificial tread. We can also draw the conclusion, that when the tire rest on the ground, the actual pressure is not equal over the entire tire footprint.
 
   
   
   
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Rollbars springs shocks and A-arms.

Rear suspension.

  When making toe or camber adjustment, just unbolt the front leg of the A-arm. When alignent is fixed, adjust the length to suit the new angle. No bindings then.

My (own fabrication) uprights.This is a "BOX" casting. With no open sides. This makes a tremendous difference in twisting stiffness. This one weights 8,8 pounds. Original steel is 13.75 pounds.

  Tightening rear axle nut. Rear upper A-arm. Made to match the new front suspension. New A-arm layout. This should make room for larger exhaust pipes. It also has the benefit of greater stifness to distribute vertical load to the rear bushing of the uppright..
The rear A-arm with dual coilover mount. Alter the wheelrate from 120 N/mm to 76N/mm.The slightly changed geometry of the rear suspension in order to be able to use the different coilover settings. There where no problem whatsoever to take the entire suspension apart after two years of duty. No problem with the conical bearing in the uppright. Construction sketch. The shaded area is the stainless bearing holder. (Pictured above with the outer bearing mounted. The bearing play is set by shims between the axle yok tightened by the axle nut. There are two sealing boxes outside each bearing, running directly against the inner bearing race. Even the inner bearing must have a turned seat in the upright. What cannot be seen on the drawing is that the inner bearing has a 1/4" smaller outside diameter, but is slightly wider.
Combination of needle roller and ball bearing for the lover uppright axle makes for an exact suspension movement. The axle tube is fabricated out of bearing material and is the inner roller race. Halfchafts. The one on the top is factory lenght. I cut 1,2inches away from the big end. Exposing a longer portion of the smaller diameter axle. This makes more room for exhaust pipes, plus saves 1/2 pound. The upper ball joint is an sperical standard bearing. A special insert locate it in the A-arm. Disc mounting allow for heat expanding.

Front suspension.

Front A-arm system, longer arms, more parallell and thereby less camber compensative. Spindle parts. Lover balljoint is Saab. 1 dgr spindle angle. Caster is schimmed to spec. The front uppright. Upper spindle joint bearing and bolt.

Sway bars, are commonly named "anti sway bars", which sounds like the whole idea behind the bar is to protect the car from sway. The sway bar is a balance tool, f,ex if the road is wet we may need some more front end grip. This is achieved by reducing the front bar rate. Or, should we say, allow the car to roll a little more. In other words, more roll - better grip. The spring rate of the bars together should be just high enough to give the car a suitable "sideway spring travel". Without making the suspension to bottom out. Or to prevent ground contact, during cornering. A good set-up "sideway suspension" help even out corner peak loads, not to chock the tire grip.The spring rate balance between the front and rear bars should then be used to balance over-under steer. The drawback of to much roll is gain in positive camber . The harder the bars, the harder the outer tire peakloads become and the tire heats up more. I use a spring rate soft enough to permit a roll of a roll of 1,5 degree. It is also worth mentioning that different roll bar stiffness does not affect the amount of weight trasfered to the outside wheels during cornering. I will only affect the distribution of weight front-rear, and how hard the transferred weight will hit the tire grip. The transferred weight is a product of centre of gravity height, track width and speed. Shocks gives this movement a "time factor". To take full advantage of the roll, A-arm angle are very important for proper roll-camber and road contact. Hollow swaybars? The rear bar of the Pantera weight 8,8 pound. A hollow will save 5 pound for the same springrate. Pantera swaybars is located at the lowest point of the car. So there is no value for the money. I rather use the money to reduce both more and hihger located weight in the car.

 Weight transfer

The front sway bar of the Pantera has a spring lever ratio of 0,16. This means that the bar spring rate are to be multiplied by 0,16 A bar with a spring rate of 650 pund/inch, times 0,16 is 104 pound/inch at the wheel. The equation is, bar attaching point length = 135mm A-arm length = 335mm equals 0,40. 0,40x0,40 = 0,16. Rear motion ratio is 0,70. The same is true for the springs. Motion ratio is 0,71 front and 0,75 rear. Just multiple those numbers with spring rate and you got the wheel rate. To calculate motion ratio for the springs, the angle of the coil over must be taken in to consideration. However, this numbers does not apply to my new A-arms.

Spring wheel rate. Are 386 pound/inch front and 585 pound/inch rear. I am talking wheel rate, as this is the rate the car uses against the road. Wheel rate is less than spring rate because the lever of the A-arm. Divided by the car weight we get spring frequencies, a number that show how hard the car is sprung. This numbers are 3hz front and 2,8 hz rear. Together with the roll bar this balances the weight distribution off 62 % rear and 38 % front to almost neutral steering. Equally important are where the masses is located on the car. And they should be located low down and in the centre of the car. Ideal for the Pantera since it has no ground effect. If there is anything I really miss on the car, it should be a better design under body. My first Pantera was even heavier in the rear, 66%, and accordingly show better braking numbers, but more sensitive to tune in corners. Shocks are Öhlins.

New shockabsorbers from ÖHLINS.Supposed to be about the best there is. We will see the comming season.This set up is fabricated specially for the Pantera, with shims and springs for my car. I decided to sort out a racing set up, so the car is sprung to 3 Hz as a starting point 1060mm height help eliminate roll.

Racing cars use very hard springs, and close to ground settings and racetracks are usually very flat apart from regular roads where you meet all kind of obstructions, different surfaces and up and downs. I use a ground clearence of 3 inches which is about as low as I can get with a resonable spring rate. Even with 3 inches I had a few ground connections. For the same reasons, bumpy roads, a streetcar can take advantage of its lighter brake equipment, to make the wheels follow the roads better. Therefore, to be fast on the roads, stay away from stiff racecar settings. Go cart feelings does nothing but slows the car down. It is not the way that firmer springs and bars makes the car gain road grip, itis the other way around. When the car is tuned faster(more road grip), usually by lower CG height, geometric, wing and rubber actions, the car must use more springs becouse the added speed capability put bigger loads on the car. Ok, depending on A-arm geometry we might want to stiffen the car to retain proper camber angle, but thats strictley racing stuff. Therefore we should newer use more spring than necessary. As for references, the Panoz racing car has a front wheel travel of 10 mm drop and 25 mm bump. Rear wheel travel is 25mm drop and 40mm bump.

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

A-arm geometry.

Pantera A-arm geometry is not much to be proud of today, creating a miserable change in spring-wheelrate and a few other undesirable effects. F-1 cars use long and very much parallell A-arms. That way we got insensitivity to camber vs ride height variation due to aerodynamic force without affecting camber compensation too much. The F-1 theory does not apply very well to this sort of sportscar, but some of the thinking is usefull. What I am trying to do here is to keep rollcentre height at the same level and GRc lateral movement under control in order to keep weight transfer and its distribution, geometric-elastic front to rear the same during roll.

Top, original Pantera front suspension geometry.

With the low ground setting there is quite a steep upper A-arm angle. Also the lower arm has lower pivot centre in the chassis. Not the very best, allthrougt giving acceptable roll centre height. One other problem is the SAI projection point that hit the ground at 1290 mm distance, creating a big scrub radious.

Top, original Pantera rear geometry.

Very short instant centre gives a "swingam" like wheel travel. Together with a large scrub radious, wheelrate is getting lower. I made up a formula, for use in an excel sheet, showing what happens. =(SIN(C2*3,14/180)*(B2*F2)/(A2*(F2+E2)))^2

The new A-arm geometry, front. Rc at 11,2 mm. New rear geometry. Rc at 30 mm.
This is the FRONT suspension. The geometry used is such that the roll centre height is keept within 0,2 mm during 1,5 degree of roll. Also, the jacking forces are almost neutralized over the left and rear sides, so very little lifting movements are present. This means that the rollarm remains pretty much constant over the roll-movement. 1,5 dgr of roll means 0,8" of deflection, or 20 mm. With that in mind I set the rollstiffness so that I got 20 mm of deflection at 1,3 g of cornering load. As the CGH is 415 mm or 16,3", I got 415-11,3=403,7mm rollarm. Sprung weight is 1000 kg. 1000*1,3g =1300kg. 1300*0,4037= 525kpm of Mot.

This means a rollstiffness of 404 kpm per degree. Total Wt = 415mm* 1,3g *1220Kg/1560mm=422kg. The outside pair of wheel is then carrying 1032 kg which means 85% of the side load.

As seen in the drawing to the right where the car is under roll, the geometric Rc has moved 73% of the Tw to the unloaded wheel side. Idealy it should have been 85% according to the Wt number. However, the forcelines are low so the height difference at the side of GRc is low, which show the advantage of low forcelines. To cure the problem I could lower the Cgh to 300 mm, which is not easy. Another solution is using more parallell A-arms but then the cambercompensation situation is getting vorse. Low forcelines and long A-arms does also gives the benefit of less lateral scrub during heave, good braking nd acceleration grip from less vertical movement-camber change, or if aerodynamic downforce is present. Low Cgh is mandatory from all points of view.

The rear suspension is not showed, but A-arms are shorter and thereby victims for a larger compromice. GRc is only moving 195 mm resulting in a larger jacking force. I tryed to keep the cambersituation as equal to front as possible and the outside front is -1,28 compared to the rears -1,4 degree @ 1,5 dgr roll.

This is a model used to check out body-roll depending on Rollaxis angle. I has been a lot written and talked about this phenomenon, but I dont know if things are sorted out. Computer program is great, but to me a physical model is very dependable, and this model is able to handle both right and left tire grip load, which is very important since load affect jacking forces.

As the model is set up here, we are having a very high Rc in one end of the car and an almost ground level Rc at the opposit end. In this case the model show that weight distribution front toreae has an influence on the precentage of geometric antiroll of the car. However, this setup is not really used on any car, but it show the principals we have to deal with. Using longer and more parallell to ground A-arms at all four corners will take the hazzle out of the calculations and make it much easier to deal with.

Even if the term Rc appear a bit dizzy, in reality it is not. With a properley designed A-arm system Rc can be pretty much fixed at the centre of the car even as the GRc is moving sideways. Rc is useful for establishing the rollaxis.

New Pantera design.

Recently there was a new design, or should I say new dressing, for the Pantera made by someone thinking it needs a new look. Ok, from my point of view, the look should remain pretty much the same as before, although 2 meters wide 1 meter height and 4,1 meters long and some modified fenders for larger wheels, as fare as design is concerned. Then the similarity will end, a totally redesigned chassis. Front track 1670 mm, rear track 1645mm, wheelbase 2500mm. Ground setting 70mm. Rch 15mm, Cgh 300-350mm, weight 950kg, zero antidive and squat, Front and rear SAI 1 dgr, scrub front 15mm and rear 20mm, 30% Ackermann. Brakes are 12" discs x 1,25. Hight mounted rack and pinion which takes another A-arm layout. This will do away with roll and bumpsteer troubble, and at the same time get rid of any 3:e A-arm leg influence from a steering rod monted in between tha A-arms. Pushrod suspension. Front and rear frame lower tubes together with the A-arms is using a higher location in order to house an aerodynamically efficent bellypan and diffusors. Totally new design spindles and upprights located in a way that reduces internal loads and also on both steering rods and rear toe leg rod. Pushrod angle and location is such that A-arm load is greatley reduced. Rc is adjustable by horizontally mounted inner A-arm bushings and spherical bearings is used in moost cases as they permit better forceline centre in the A-arm legs. But even a few heimjoint is used for adjustability but mounted in such way that they recieve straight loads. I was figuring the car should be right hand drive as European tracks are mostley running clockwise.

The floor is marked green, and the feets will be higher becouse of the raised front structure. A-arm attachment are blue, rack&P is yellow and wheelcentre red, just so we can compare to the original Pantera locations.

The scale of the drawing is pretty exact, but is only showing the main tubing for simplicity. Triangulation is very much left out.

Photoshop image to visualize what the Pantera may look like modified according to the drawings. I didnt put to much effort using Photoshop, just eough to get an acceptable image. Front air dam is moved forward for better splitter function. Wheel house openings are rounded and moved up. Wheels are 18". Car is 1000mm in height. And the diffuser together with radiator air exit out the side. Rear diffusor added.

The intention is not to create a better looking Pantera but to house a racing chassis in a body still looking as much as an original Pantera as possible.

Corvette C6 and Viper suspension.

As for comparsion I made a scetch of the Corvette and Viper suspension system. One might wonder what the engineer come up with for those cars as they provide a fairly good ride while still maintaining braking, cornering and acceleration performance that good. There is a lot to be said for a comment to these drawings so I want go in to details, but so much can be said that those cars are quite soft in heave and to cope with horizontal forces they have a good deal of anti:s in all directions. The Corvette is on top and Viper below. To the left we have the front and to the right the rear suspension. Middle part is the cars seen from the side where the CGH line is common for both cars for an easy comparsion and the wheels on the sides is seen from the rear or front.

I was figuring of making a Ohlins coilover setup for these cars if time so permit. The idea is to create a sporty set up more suitable for road racing.

A-arm geomerty

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Performance.

Skipad driving. This is what the car looks like under 1g of cornering. The car should be driven in a circle along the white line. Lap-time is measured with a photocell

My skipad test, with the GT-5 in stock condition with the 351-C and original wing location, could hardley corner more than 1.G. Clearly showing that the Pantera aerodynamics does not work. A Penske indy car has 3300 ibs ground force at 165 mph, at the cost of 1119 ibs of drag. A cart-car with well designed wings can turn 4 g:s. Porsche 911 has a lift of 600 ibs at 150 mph. Ferrari Enzo a has a downforce of 760 ibs at 125 mph with NO wing, due to good under body. And corners 1,4 G. Numbers that speaks for itself. Koenigsegg, claim a cornering capability of 1,15g a great number, but still 0,25g lower than the Enzo. Both Enzo and Koenigsegg talk "cornering capability", which should not be confused with skipad numbers. A corner is a corner and skipad is a complete 360 circle. So the 1,4 and 1,15 g will be reduced on the skipad.

Horsepower 800@6600 rpm
Torque 630 fp@5300rpm 869Nm
0-60 mph 3,3 sec
Acc @ 50 mph 0,88 G in 2;gear
Braking power* 1,18 G.
Ski pad** 1,14 G

According to Cygnus computer, which is an on board computer with mecanical sensors that measure wheel rotation, crank rpm etc to measure performance, 700 hp at 6600 rpm, measured installed in the car with 20 disc Supertrapp. Eqvivalent motors by Ray Barton produce 775 hp and 700 foot pound of torque, in the bench dyno. I tuned the headers at a little lower rpm than max HP. The ZF gearbox limits fast starts, as one cannot let the clutch go at high rpm. Gearbox will probably break from the added kinetic energy stored by the rotating mass. But it does seem to handle the torque itself well. Now I am not too concerned. This is not a 1/4 mile car, so a road racing set up is used. All numbers are with the previous intake system. Interesting to check the new system.

* Braking speed 60 mph. ** Test is made in a circle of 200 foot diameter. Test is run on non heated tires, to simulate road conditions..

Specifications.

Length 167,32 Tire R 13x25x15 Rollbar front non Mr F rollbar 0,27
Width 78,66" Spring stiffness front 3,11Hz Rollbar rear non Mr R rollbar 0,54
Height 41,53" Spring stiffness rear 2,81Hz Roll distribution front 43% F-axle load at 1,0 G braking 1487 p
Frot track 60,60 Wheel rate total   Roll distribution rear 57% R-axle load at 1,0 G braking

1252 p

Rear track 63" Deflection at 1-G cornering 0,57" Roll centre front 0,45" F-axle load at 0,88-G accel 630 p
Wheelbase 98,42" Deflection in degree at 1-G 1,08dgr Roll centre rear

1,18"

R-axle load at 0,88-G accel 1950p
Weight 2525 p 1148kg Roll stiffness kpm/degree 330 kpm Spring rate F 735p/" Camber gain @ 3/4" bump  
W-front

948 p 431kg

Overturning moment (Mot) 357 kpm Spring rate R 1200 p/" Camber gain @ 3/4" rebound  
W-rear 1577 p 717kg Suspension drop front 1,1/2 inch Wheel rate F 386p/"

Camber gain @ +5 dgr turn

 
Wheel F 10x15 Suspension bump front 1,1/2 inch Wheel rate R 505p/" Camber gain @ - 5 dgr turn  
Wheel R 13x15 Suspension drop rear 1,1/2inch Mr (motion ratio) F coilover 0,525 Unsprung weight inkl wheel F  
Tire F 9,1x23,5x15 Suspension bump rear 1,1/2 inch Mr R coilover 0,423 Unsprung weight inkl wheel R 86,9 p

Wheel loads at different actions. Original Pantera estimates for comparsion.

Hemipanter   Hemipanter   Original Pantera Original Pantera
Left F 255p Right F 790 p
Left R 427 p Right R 1267 p
 
173 p 710 p
506 p 1346 p
 
231 p 1034 p
383p 1454p
Original Pantera Hemipanter
F-0,75 G acc 856p = 27% 23 %
R-0,75G acc 2246 p = 73% 77 %

F-1G brake 1810 p = 58%

52 %
R-1G brake1291 p = 42% 48 %

Transfered weight 685p

Wheel load at 1-G of steady state left turn cornering.

  Wheel load at 1-G of left turn cornering. with a combination of 0,37 G acceleration..  

Transfered weight 935p

Wheel load at 1-G of steady state left turn cornering.

These numbers are for the same G numbers to make a fair comparsion. Due to lower CGH the Hemipanter should have showed less than 77% rear weight at acc, but static rear weight is higher.

Wheel alignment.

SAI 1 gdr Scrubb radius 106 mm Toe (out) 0 Ackermann 30%
Caster 3 gdr Camber - 2 gdr Rear toe in 2x1,0mm Bump steer 1" rebound +-0,2 mm
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Weight and weight savings.

Weight. 2350 pounds. How is this possible?. Drill holes in every bolts, plastic windows, fibreglass hoods, small battery, no frogeyes, etc, etc. Even so, I is trying to give the car at least some kind of comfort. Like some heating system when chilly and electric wipers.

Karbon fibre rear deck lid. 13,2 pounds yet very strong.

This particular hood had a sew problems like to bent roof profile. I try the trix of bending it straight and reinforce with fibre glass. It has gelcote on, so it has to be painted. No carbon fibre show off, to bad. Very light doors and even the hings are lightened.

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Interior.

Carbone fibre dasch, the onlything "bling" on the car.

A composite firewall door. Very light 4,4p flat with insulation and bolts.

Removable steering wheel is a must.

Pictures 2004 season

12/8 Testing day at Lunda airport.I rented the track all by myself for a 10 hr hard driving day.

 
Henrik from Ohlins keeps reckord of shock settings. My little daughter is having fun with a go cart.
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Peder Pantera.

Started out as a rust bucket in 1986.

The front was tilted down some 3 inches. Rear fender cut away.

15 years later, the car was finally painted.

All new lowered floor.

Pioneer and Rocford Fossgate amps. There is also a Brax condesor for peak transient note power supply.

Dynamat everywhere.

 
   
   
   
   
Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News

Corvette Nordic Supercar

Speedlab Corvette Racing 2008.

The Nordic Supercar is an interesting cup with big, fast powerfull cars using V-8 snd V-10 enines. The Speedlab Racing Team have given me the confidence to design their new Corvette racing car from a clean sheet of paper.The old car is the yellow Corvette to the left, which is an USA built C-3 Trans Am car from the 90:s.

Me, standing, and the Speedlab guys loking at drawings.

Planned design of the car.

Drawings.  
Breif design of the front wheel centre line cut seen from the rear. Engine is offset to the right. 18 inch wheels 13 and 13,5 inches wide, 650 front and 710mm rear diameter tires from Michelin. Total height 40 inches = 1000 mm..
Upprights. Engine.
Here a prototype front and rear upprights made from cartoon paper that is going to be fabricated in chrome molly steel. Chrome molley sheet metal for the rear upprights.
   
Evacuation permits very short hoses to the pump. The low mounting location does also ensure good starting up oilpressure. Oil evacuation permits very short hoses to the pump. The low mounting location does also ensure good starting up oilpressure. Showing HM damper and oil pump drive. I made a new hub with a longer "neck" to be able to mount the belt-drive-wheel on the inside of the HM-damper. Pump is as low mounted as possible.
Header fabrication. Image also show the low mounting of the oilpump and special bellhousing. Headers are seven-Y designe and is having a megaphone after the last Y.
Engine mount plate.  
Dry sump. Rear mounted starter motor.
This is the twisting test of the chassis. The front bar is anchored to the floor at the outer end and is resting on a floating stand in the middle, all to elminate bindings. The "starting out" twisting showed a mear 4000 fp/dgr, where the largest nuber was read in the engine section of the chassis, and the roof as a good number two. After crossbracing the roof and mounting of the engine the number went up to 8000Nm/dgr. Bar is 2 meters long for an easy Nm reading. The centre of the rear is also ancored to the floor, hanging in a wire. The chassis is lifted up from its "resting" location during the test.
By using telescopic tubes I detected the largest flex to occure in the front window area, 1/8", so an diagonal tube was welded in place as seen on this image. Now the redaing get 18000 Nm/dgr. We still got a 1/16" flex in the engine section, and the coupe floor that is describing "waves" under loads. I am looking for (hopefully) some 30000 Nm/dgr as a final result.
Wind tunnel testing.  
To find out the best wing profile and its location on the car, I performed asimple wind tunnel test. Here is a 1:30 scale model of a "fantasy" car, it has a front splitter and an adjustable rear wing. This is the underside of the car which is pretty much like what is used on the real Corvette race car.
Chassie.  
Observe, I banned the use of any bent tubes in the new part of the chassis. The Old trans-am part (red) is and was full of them, which made it no (better) stronger than a wet dischcloth..
Aero.  
New wing profile. A new wingprofile I worked out in my windtunnel. It is for low speeds, say 100 mph. This is a coutout from 1/3" aluminium sheet, in two pieces, which is then mounte in a cellplastic cutting machine to form a light body to be covered in carbon fibre.
I am fabricating the "swan neck" that is holding the rear wing. The front edge is made round. Ther are cutouts in the aluminium to make it lighter, the holes are then filled with balsa wood to lessen turbulence.
The new diffusser. The new front diffusser
This is the third spring to cope with vertical downforce at higher speeds.  
Since the Corvette wheel broke down I decided to make my own set of wheels. This is the basic shape watercut aluminium.
Mantorp 21 sep 2009. This is the first real track testings of the car. At Barkaby the 31 august 2009.
Falkenberg 24-7-2011  
We have had problems with some understeer so I rebuilt the diffrential. Instead of the load-sensitive plate pack I made a new packages using a roller bearing which makes a completely open differential. It's not quite what you are accustomed to seeing on a race car but this car has an incredibly low center of gravity so I thought it was worth a try. It turned out that the driver was very satisfied. Now we can use a more balanced coilover-spring setting. This weekend, 12-8-2012, test-driven the car with the new diff and the result was two victories in two races on Anderson Stop Raceway. I am really pleased with that.

This weight numbars would make for a great Pantera race car. To bad there is no money handy for such project.

Books

A chassis engineering book that show the build up of the Speedlab Corvette race car.

This is a book about how to build a racing car. I describe the process step by step, using the build up of a racing Corvette as a working example. For those who like Corvettes this might be of special interest. I am using a building theory of my own called the "Zerocar" philosophy. The Zerocar is a car that has practically no suspension angle's, ground level roll centre and no anti's. What makes a racing car faster than a production car around the track is that it is optimized to do what it is set to do. A daily transporter must be able to do a number of things and be able to drive in sun, rain and snow. The race car will become a nightmare in snow. This means that the daily driver is having a number of features that has no place on a race car, and will therefore not be very good to use as a platform when explaining the building process. The Zerocar is a "clean" car where we only need to add what is needed to make it suit our application, no less, no more.

The book include...

Aerodynamics, tires and wheels, braking systems, dry sump systems and effective oilpan design, cooling systems, exhaust systems. Calculations, math, tires, wheel alignment, suspension geometry, springs, swaybars, a quite large section about shock absorbers, engine management systems and injectors-sensors. Everything very much down to earth, to make it possible for a small team to build a fast car.

The book is in English. A4 format, 315 sides and 457 images. Interested? Drop me a mail with your name and adress to hemipanter@hemipanter.se Payment should be done in advance using PayPal, to the e-mail adress hemipanter@hemipanter.se

€108. $156. £98. Including shipping.

Dont forget to mail your name and adress!

Väghållningsboken. Behandlar väghållning i allmänhet. A-armssystem o fjädringsberä kningar, däck och stötdämpare. Beräkningar för bromssystem och grundläggande broms-fysik är ingredienser i boken. Även lite aerodynamik och hur under-sidan av bilen med splitter samt en vinge fungerar, men även lite motor-teknik som kylsystem, avgas o insug-ningssystem och torrsusumpsmörjning finns med. Bra bok för den som redan har en färdig bil och vill jobba med instälnningar o service. 130 sidor. 400:- inkl frakt.

Banbilsboken. Boken behandlar hur man bygger en banbil från grunden. Jeg har en egen filosofi som jag kallar "Nollbillen" som är ett pedagogiskt sätt att belysa hur man går rätt tillväga. Jag visar hur man börjar från ett blankt papper, designar chassiet och hjulupphängningar. Boken innehåller dessutom mycket av väghållningsboken samt hur stötdämpare fungerar, avgasrör, insugningsrör, kylsystem, torrsumpskon-struktion, bromssystem, aerodynamik samt insprutningssystem. Även sådant som kulleder, materialval, profiler, pushrods, beräkning av lastväxlingar, roll-axellutning, samt ingående anlys av "anti" funktioner och rollcen-trum. Passar den som vill gå steget längre och bygga eller bygga om sin bil. 350 sidor och 450 bilder. 900:- inkl frakt.

 

Thinking problems  
As we where talking sway bars a few treads back I recall making a sway bar full scale test a few years ago.
The idea was to see what difference the angle of the sway bar arm made. So I made a number of bars with different angle arms and loaded them with weights. Sorry to say that I don’t remember the diameter of the bar, but it doesn’t really matter in this case. The thing is that the angle of the arm is seldom mentioned even as it has a big influence on the function. As we can see on the picture the first loading on a 90 dgr arm produce a deflection of 120 mm.
Question 1.
What do you members think the deflection will be for the other four bars? Just a rough guesswork is Ok.
Question 2.
How do we analyze the difference of what happens?
Here is a spring problem. Nothing very hard for the engineer, but I know there is a lot misunderstanding about the issue. So bringing it up may be a good idea.

The problem is what happens when two springs are loaded against each other. There is a plate C, between them and we are trying to push this plate to the left press one spring together. The springs are having a rate of 1kg per mm each.

A1, both springs is just touching the plate, which means that as soon as we push the plate in one direction it will produce a resistance of 1 kg per mm, and the other spring will come loose.

A2, If the plate is pushed 10 mm we must hold it by the force of 10 kg then. The opposite spring is is out of influence as soon as the plate is moving since there is no preload in the starting position.

B1, here both springs is having a preload of 10mm, a force of 10kg each. We are now trying to push the plate to the left again.

B2, the question is wether or not the right side spring by its pree loaded force will help us pressing the left spring together. What will be the needed force to move the plate 10mm to the left?

Fast sportscars
The Pantera
The engine.
Engine Spec
Injection, ignition
Exhaust
Fabrication pictures
Favorit car sites
Chassis and components
Aerodynamics
Brakes
Wheels and tires.
Rollbars springs schocks
A-arm geometry
Performance
Specifications
Weight savings.
Interior.
Pictures 2004 season
History
PederPanter
Books RACECAR CHASSISBOOK
Corvette Nordic Supercar
News
My son:s Ford 1967 Shelby Mustang. 2011-11-11 The Mustang engine in the bench. 1427 hp at 7000 rpm and 14 psi boost.

I decided tu use NIRA i3+ to handle the injection and ignition of my Hemi engine. The latest in engine management systems to control the old pushrod Hemi engine.

News

A small wind tunnel in scale 1:20.

A 6 hp fan for power.

Blocked side air outlet. Side podes on the splitter.normal wing attack. 29-28=57down and 70drag No skirts. Side pods on the splitter and the same normal wing attack. 25-26=51 down and 74 drag All the same as number two exept that the wing is set to zero attack. 29-22=51 down and 62 drag. We got more front downforce from the los off rear wing lever.
The same as number two but the wing mowed up and forward. 27-26=53 down and 65 drag.

Another session and a new scale. The car has no splitter end plates. 72 front 72 rear 63 drag. Downforce number is different becouse of higher air speed.

Tha same car with splitter end plates. 64 front 71 rear 70 drag. Downforce number is different becouse of higher air speed. This appear to be the best for downforce, so far.
The front and rear numbers are reversed, so a higher number is less downforce. Drag numbers are higher is more. I will continu these tests and give som more information later on.
Here I am testing a splitter construction using a balance bar and weight to measure the downforce effect. The splitter is shaped pretty much as a wing on the underside, and is positioned in between two aluminium sheet that is also serving as end plates. This is two of the test profile I am using. The one on the top is letting air in under the front to feed the venturi with air. The profile one on the lower picture has a parallell to ground air intake. The trick is to find out which profile is the best. Is the splitter to have an advantage from using a air intake like the top image or not? There has been a lot to read and many people will have an opinion, despite this, nobody really seem to know. I will not reveal the truth today.
This are som of the profiles I tested. The one on the top generates 10g groundforce and has a 20 mm rise from the ground which is the horizontal line. The first part from the left is parallell to ground for a little more than half the lenght before it starts to rise as a diffusser. This profile is only delivering 14 g groundforce. Probably stalling.

 

 

 

Goran Malmberg.